Articulatory Phonetics 101: Diphthongs

This is Part 11 of a series covering the basics of articulatory phonetics, the study of how humans physically produce speech sounds. For the full list of posts, see the Articulatory Phonetics 101 Index.

When we last left off, we had just covered the basics of vowel production. We’re almost — almost — done with the basics of articulatory phonetics, but we have one last thing to cover, real quick:

What’s the vowel in “hi”?

If you remember what we discussed in the vowel basics article, you’ll remember that from the articulatory point of view, a vowel is defined by the position of the highest point of the tongue — specifically, how high and how far back it is. What you’ll find, though, is that when you say “hi”, your tongue moves from one position to another, creating a change in the vowel quality. In this case, the vowel begins as /a/, a low central vowel, and ends as /ɪ/, a high front lax vowel. This vowel is a diphthong, a vowel with two (Greek di-) different vowel qualities (Greek phthongos, “tone”).

Phonologically, diphthongs are considered one vowel, rather than two. If we want to indicate for clarity that /haɪ/ contains a diphthong, we can draw a tie bar over it: /ha͡ɪ/. Alternatively, we can write the diacritic ̯ under /ɪ/ to indicate that /ɪ/ is not a syllable: /haɪ̯/. (If you want to be really particular about their use, they can be used to specify slightly different things, but we won’t get into that here.)

If you ever need to indicate that two adjacent vowels are separate syllables instead of a diphthong, you can insert a syllable break . to indicate that the two vowels do not form a diphthong: /a.ɪ/.

Diphthongs of English

Depending on what variety of English you speak, you may have different numbers of diphthongs. General American has five diphthongs, and Received Pronunciation has eight diphthongs.

General American diphthongs:

  • /aɪ/ as in “hi
  • /aʊ/ as in “how
  • /ɔɪ/ as in “boy
  • /eɪ/ as in “hay
  • /oʊ/ as in “hoe” (the gardening implement — minds out of gutters, please)

Received Pronunciation (or the Queen’s English, or BBC English — take your pick) diphthongs:

  • /aɪ/ as in “hi
  • /aʊ/ as in “how
  • /ɔɪ/ as in “boy
  • /eɪ/ as in “hay
  • /əʊ/ as in “hoe” (General American /oʊ/)
  • /ɪə/ as in “here” (General American /ɪɹ/)
  • /ɛə/ as in “hair” (General American /ɛɹ/)
  • /aə/ as in “hire” (General American /aɪɹ/)

/aɪ/, /aʊ/ and /aə/ begin with the low central vowel /a/, which otherwise does not appear in English.

/eɪ/ and /oʊ/ are of particular note here, because in General American and Received Pronunciation, /e/ and /o/ always appear as diphthongs. In broad transcription, it’s up to you whether you want to write out the full diphthongs /eɪ/ and /oʊ/, or if you want to leave them as /e/ and /o/.

Conclusion

That’s all I’ve got for you today. I’ll have a round-up post next week that quickly revisits all the most important concepts in articulatory phonetics, like a cheat sheet. See you all next week!

DE > EN: Let It Go

I've looked at six versions of Let It Go in detail: Catalan, Castilian Spanish, Latin American Spanish, Chinese Mandarin, Taiwanese Mandarin and now German. They all have strengths and weaknesses, and I think each language does some really special things: "ice-sky snow-earth" is really hard to top, and I have favourite lines from each of the other versions I've translated so far.

That said, I feel like I've saved the best for last. Just like children, every version is special, but this one is extra special.

German version

English translation

English version

Der Schnee glänzt weiß auf den Bergen heut' Nacht The snow gleams white on the mountains tonight The snow glows white on the mountain tonight
Keine Spuren sind zu sehen No tracks are to be seen Not a footprint to be seen
Ein einsames Königreich An lonesome kingdom A kingdom of isolation
Und ich bin die Königin And I am the queen And it looks like I'm the queen
Der Wind, er heult so wie der Sturm ganz tief in mir The wind, it howls like the storm so deep in me The wind is howling like the swirling storm inside
Nicht zu kontrollieren, ich hab' es versucht Not to control [it], I have tried Couldn't keep it in, heaven knows I tried

The first linguistics class I ever took at New York University was Indo-European Syntax. I needed a science class, linguistics counted as a science, and Indo-European Syntax fit in my schedule and had no prerequisites. I was already a declared Spanish major at the time, and I had an O Level in German, but I had zero linguistics background. I switched into Indo-European Syntax in the second week after a half-hearted first-week dip in the Animation department. I showed up in class, got a copy of the syllabus, and saw that across the top it read "Proto-Indo-European Syntax".

My heart sank. Proto-Indo-European?

After class, I met with the professor in the linguistics department, and I told him I had no prior background in linguistics. Not a problem, he said; as a Spanish major with some formal study in German, I was a perfect candidate for a class like Indo-European Syntax, and he would get me up to speed. For the next hour, he weaved together a primer in historical linguistics, morphosyntax and semantics, and I was hooked -- completely taken by the way he connected one dot to another to another, jumped from one language to another, pulled it all together into a coherent big picture, and made it all so exciting. His sense of wonder at language was pure, childlike and contagious, and it made me want to play with language, too.

It turned out he was a specialist in Germanic historical linguistics, and so for the rest of the semester I had a privileged vantage point. When he talked about subordinate word order in German, the entire syntax of German fell into place in my head. Why didn't my language teachers explain it to me like this? When I then asked him why deshalb did not enforce the same word order as the other conjunctions, he paused and thought for a moment, and said, "good question", and then said, "because it's an adverb." Well, damn it, four years of high school German and all my teachers insisted on pretending it was a conjunction. I remember him asking the class what verb was related to the adjective forlorn, and enjoying his surprise when I pulled out lose. "How did you know?" he asked; "verloren," I said. A little pride still creeps in whenever I think about that exchange.

Professor John Costello was many things to many of his students. To me, he was a magician, and he rekindled my interest in a language that I thought I had no affinity for. It's impossible for me to look at a German word and not smile just a little bit, imagining what wonder he would have found in it.

Maybe that's why I find the German version special.

That's also why I rendered einsam as lonesome, instead of isolated, lonely, etc. I wanted to keep the cognate -some ending. For me, it's part of seeing how German comes together, the history that it shares with the English language, where they meet and where they diverge.

Tracing the etymology of heulen leads back to Proto-Germanic *uwwalon-, last mentioned in the Castilian Spanish version in the discussion about aullar.

"There's always a cognate!" said Prof. Costello once, about the relationship between English and German. The English cognate of versucht is forsought: to seek for. I have sought for not controlling it.

German version

English translation

English version

Lass sie nicht rein Don't let them in Don't let them in
Lass sie nicht sehen Don't let them see Don't let them see
Wie du bist, nein How you are, no Be the good girl
Das darf niemals geschehen That must never happen You always had to be
Du darfst nichts fühlen, zeig ihnen nicht You musn't feel anything, don't show them Conceal, don't feel, don't let them know
Dein wahres Ich Your true self Well, now they know

Keep "lass sie nicht rein, lass sie nicht sehen" in mind. "Sie" here is the third person formal plural accusative pronoun. ("Ihnen" is the third person formal plural dative pronoun.) We'll come back to this later.

Dürfen is "to be allowed", and so you can make a case for "das darf niemals geschehen" to be "that is not allowed to happen", and "du darfst nichts fühlen" to be "you are not allowed to feel anything". I took a little liberty here because "to be allowed" is so clunky, I think "musn't" and "must never" parse a lot more cleanly.

I think this is my favourite version of this verse. It's coherent, it's put together well, it has a lot of force from four different types of negation, including the use of negated dürfen. It loses the sentiment of "well, now they know," but I never liked that line anyway, and "dein wahres Ich" is a perfect fit for this song.

A completely unsolicited look into the way my brain works:

Hmm, there's a random [t] between "wahres" and "Ich" in the recording.

Is it supposed to be there?

Is there some connected speech process that causes [t] to occur in that position?

Well, "Ich" begins with a glottal stop.

Wait, do glottal stops have an audible release?

*searches Wikipedia*

I'm still not sure...

30 minutes later, trying to replicate abovementioned unidentified connected speech process on the train for the first time

Wait a second, [s] doesn't stop airflow at the alveolar ridge, and [ʔ] stops airflow only in the glottis.

So there's no process that could cause a [t], which requires airflow to stop at the alveolar ridge.

It's just a mistake that she made during recording.

If you'd tried this out half an hour ago, instead of messing around on Wikipedia, you'd have figured it out at once.

But wait: do glottal stops have an audible release?

German version

English translation

English version

Ich lass' los, lass jetzt los I'm letting go, let go now Let it go, let it go
Die Kraft, sie ist grenzenlos The power, it is limitless Can't hold it back any more
Ich lass' los, lass jetzt los I'm letting go, let go now Let it go, let go
Und ich schlag' die Türen zu And I slam the doors shut Turn away and slam the door
Es ist Zeit, nun bin ich bereit It is time, now I am ready I don't care what they're going to say
Und ein Sturm zieht auf And a storm is gathering Let the storm rage on
Die Kälte, sie ist nun ein Teil von mir The cold, it is now a part of me The cold never bothered me anyway

The present progressive "I'm letting go" appears here for the same reason it appeared in the Catalan version: "ich lass' los" is an action that is about to happen, which in English is better represented by the present progressive than the simple present. In this case it's even clearer because the second half of the line moves into the imperative mood so it's definitely an impending action, not an ongoing one.

The same logic lies behind "a storm is gathering", rather than "a storm gathers".

German version

English translation

English version

Es ist schon eigenartig It's indeed strange It's funny how some distance
Wie klein jetzt alles scheint How small everything now seems Makes everything seem small
Und die Ängste die in mir waren And the fears that were in me And the fears that fears once controlled me
Kommen nicht mehr an mich ran No longer come near me Can't get to me at all
Was ich wohl alles machen kann Can I perhaps do it all? It's time to see what I can do
Die Kraft in mir treibt mich voran The power in me drives me foward To test the limits and break through
Was hinter mir liegt ist vorbei What lies behind me is past No right, no wrong, no rules for me
Endlich frei! Finally free! I'm free

White flag moment: "was ich wohl alles machen kann" tripped me up. It has subordinate word order, where's the main clause? I went with what made the most sense to me, but you're welcome to disagree with a good explanation.

I do really like the German version but the tautology from the Castilian Spanish version appears in this translation, twice. The first time it shows up is here with "what lies behind me is past" -- sure, Sherlock.

German version

English translation

English version

Ich lass' los, lass jetzt los I'm letting go, let go now Let it go, let it go
Nun bin ich endlich so weit Now I'm finally so free I'm one with the wind and sky
Ich lass' los, lass jetzt los I'm letting go, let go now Let it go, let go
Doch Tränen seht ihr nicht [And] tears you will see no more You'll never see me cry
Hier bin ich, und bleibe hier Here I am, and here I stay Here I stand and here I'm staying
Und ein Sturm zieht auf And a storm is gathering Let the storm rage on

Okay, I sat on "so weit" for a while.

The "ihr" in "seht ihr" is a second-person plural informal subject pronoun. Basically, she's gone from "Sir, I would like to be left alone" three verses ago to "You schmucks suck!" here.

German version

English translation

English version

Ich spüre diese Kraft, sie ist ein Teil von mir I feel this power, it is a part of me My power flurries through the air into the ground
Sie fließt in meine Seele und in all die Schönheit hier It flows in my soul and in all the beauty here My soul is spiralling in frozen fractals all around
Nur ein Gedanke und die Welt wird ganz aus Eis Just one thought and the world becomes completely of ice And one thought crystallises like an icy blast
Ich geh' nie mehr zurück I'm never going back I'm never going back
Das ist Vergangenheit That is history The past is in the past

My favourite verse in any language (at least the ones I can understand).

I'm not too happy about the repetition of "sie ist ein Teil von mir" but I will trade it off for everything else here. It's a lot less imagery-driven than the Mandarin versions, but most languages have such a problem with the whole thing about spiralling ice, German just got rid of it altogether. I love the oneness that the second line implies: the power that flows through my soul also flows through everything that is beautiful around here.

The word Vergangenheit makes me happy. -heit converts an adjective into a noun, or a concrete noun into an abstract noun. Although the English cognate is -hood, -hood doesn't turn adjectives into nouns, so the closest thing English now has is -ness.

Probably the most famous example of this ending comes not from -heit or -hood but from Afrikaans -heid: apartheid, apartness.

Vergangen is the past participle of vergehen, which is made up of ver- "for-" and gehen "go". Vergehen, however, does not mean "forego", because "forego" actually has a different etymology and is cognate with vorgehen, to proceed, to go forward. Vergehen instead means to go away, to disappear, to pass, to elapse.

In my head I like to parse Vergangenheit as "gone-away-ness".

German version

English translation

English version

Ich bin frei, endlich frei I am free, finally free Let it go, let it go
Und ich fühl' mich wie neu geboren And I feel like I'm reborn And I'll rise like the break of dawn
Ich bin frei, endlich frei I am free, finally free Let it go, let go
Was war ist jetzt vorbei What was is now the past That perfect girl is gone
Hier bin ich in dem hellen Licht Here I am in the bright light Here I stand in the light of day
Und ein Sturm zieht auf And a storm is gathering Let the storm rage on
Die Kälte, sie ist nun ein Teil von mir The cold, it is now a part of me The cold never bothered me anyway

Tautology number two: "was war ist jetzt vorbei". No, really?!

I really hate the trailing syllable at the end of the second line here, ge-BOR-en. It feels so anticlimactic.

I know I said I loved the German version, and I do, and I seem to have spent a lot of time talking about things I don't like about it! I have a huge amount of respect for the art and craft of translation, and I think it's super important to stress that while I may nitpick at certain things, these little things are really insignificant in the big picture. It's also much easier to talk about things you don't like than about things you do.

The point of a translation of a creative work such as this is how it makes you feel, and I must admit that in this respect I am a partisan of the German language, for reasons already mentioned above.

This post is part of the Parallel Translation series, where I translate things that have been translated from English into other languages back into English. It's my idea of fun. Yes, I'm a riot at parties.

ZH > EN: Taiwanese Mandarin Let It Go

If you haven't read the note at the beginning of the other Mandarin translation, hop over there and read it before we begin, so I don't have to repeat myself.

I have a confession to make: I can't really read Traditional Chinese. I worked through this translation by sticking the lyrics into Google Translate and asking it to translate from Traditional to Simplified Chinese.

This is the version of Let It Go that was recorded for Taiwan:

Mandarin version

English translation

English version

白雪紛飛一片銀色世界 White snow swirls, a world blanketed in silver The snow glows white on the mountain tonight
báixuě fēnfēi yīpiàn yínsè shìjiè (white-snow swirls one-field silver world)
放眼望去是沉寂 Stillness as far as the eye can see Not a footprint to be seen
fàngyǎn wàngqù shì chénjì (let eye see out is stillness)
遙遠國度放逐自我 I've banished myself to a distant kingdom A kingdom of isolation
yáoyuǎn guódù fàngzhú zìwǒ (distant kingdom exile myself)
孤單寂寞每一天 Alone and lonely every day And it looks like I'm the queen
gūdān jìmò měi yītiān (alone lonely every day)
思緒像狂風呼嘯巨浪般澎湃 My train of thought is screaming like a gale, surging like giant waves The wind is howling like the swirling storm inside
sīxù xiàng kuángfēng hūxiào jùlàng bān péngpài (thought-thread like mad-wind screaming giant-wave type surging)
無法再壓抑最後的忍耐 No way to hold back, my restraint is at an end Couldn't keep it in, heaven knows I tried
wúfǎ zài yāyì zuìhòu de rěnnài (no-way again hold back most-last ATTR restraint)

The Taiwanese Mandarin translation feels a bit more literary to my ears, a little less conversational. It's a little denser, a bit harder to understand, but also jam-packed with some incredible imagery. Look at that second-last line, and then look at the gloss! There is no deadweight there, every word counts. It's beautiful.

English really doesn't have an equivalent to 忍. Spanish has aguantar, Malay has tahan, but the closest English comes to is "endure". "My endurance is at an end" sounds like somebody running out of energy at the end of a marathon.

You'll notice the line isn't actually divided into two. I actually read it as "no way to hold back my last bit of restraint" but that sounds a little bit contradictory to me. If you hold back your last bit of restraint, you... still have restraint, don't you? And if you don't hold back your last bit of restraint, you didn't really have any restraint left, did you?

Mandarin version

English translation

English version

不要靠近 Don't get close Don't let them in
bùyào kàojìn (don't get close)
不要相信 Don't believe Don't let them see
bùyào xiāngxìn (don't believe)
乖乖聽話 Be good and listen Be the good girl
guāiguāi tīnghuà (obedient-obedient listen)
安分一如往昔 Know your place just as in the past You always had to be
ānfèn yīrú wǎngxī (content-place like in the past)
隱藏,堅強,拒絕表露 Hide, don't yield, refuse to reveal Conceal, don't feel, don't let them know
yǐncáng, jiānqiáng, jùjué biǎolù (hide, strong, refuse reveal)
拋下所有 Abandon it all Well, now they know
pāoxià suǒyǒu (throw down everything)

Reduplication appears here in the form of 乖乖, glossed here as obedient-obedient. It's a gloss, so it's okay; you would have to be a bit deaf to try to fit that into a meter.

Mandarin version

English translation

English version

放開手,放開手 Let it go, let it go Let it go, let it go
fàngkāi shǒu, fàngkāi shǒu (let-open hand, let-open hand)
不需要任何理由 There's no need for a reason Can't hold it back any more
bù xūyào rènhé lǐyóu (don't need any reason)
放開手,放開手 Let it go, let it go Let it go, let go
fàngkāi shǒu, fàngkāi shǒu (let-open hand, let-open hand)
不理會心中枷鎖 Ignore the shackles in your heart Turn away and slam the door
bù lǐhuì xīnzhōng jiāsuǒ (don't pay attention heart inside shackle)
還以為曾經在乎過誰 To think I once cared about them I don't care what they're going to say
hái yǐwéi céngjīng zàihūguò shuí (still think once cared who)
讓暴雨翻騰 Let the rainstorm rage Let the storm rage on
ràng bàoyǔ fānténg (let rainstorm churn)
從不畏懼征服冰霜風雪 Never again fear conquering the ice, frost, wind and snow The cold never bothered me anyway
cóng bù wèijù zhēngfú bīngshuāng fēngxuě (ever no fear conquer ice-frost-wind-snow)

放開手 is to let go of something that you're holding on to ("let-go hand", after all). Later on we'll see another translation which I've also rendered as "let it go", but which has a slightly different nuance.

The first meaning of 翻騰 churn, rage in my dictionary is "tuck dive", as in diving.

I think in the sticklebrick compound expression stakes, 冰天雪地 ice-sky snow-earth beats out 冰霜風雪 ice-frost-wind-snow by a bit -- just a bit. Ice-frost-wind-snow is a bit too much air and not enough gravity.

Mandarin version

English translation

English version

你我之間有距離 There's a distance between you and me It's funny how some distance
nǐ wǒ zhījiān yǒu jùlí (you me between have distance)
一切變得渺小 Everything becomes insignificant Makes everything seem small
yīqiè biàn dé miǎoxiǎo (everything becomes insignificant-small)
那縈繞心頭的恐懼 Those fears hovering over my head and heart And the fears that fears once controlled me
nà yíngrào xīntóu de kǒngjù (that hover heart-head ATTR fear)
已經不再重要 Are no longer important Can't get to me at all
yǐjīng bù zài zhòngyào (already not again important)
看看我要如何去做 Let's see how I do things It's time to see what I can do
kànkàn wǒ yào rúhé qù zuò (see-see I want how go do)
測試極限能否突破 Testing limits to see if I can break them To test the limits and break through
cèshì jíxiàn néngfǒu túpò (test limits can-not break through)
沒有對錯,沒有束縛 No right, no wrong, there are no limits No right, no wrong, no rules for me
méiyǒu duìcuò, méiyǒu shùfù (don't-have right-wrong, don't-have restriction)
起飛 Take flight! I'm free
qǐfēi (up-fly)

Okay 心頭 is literally "heart-head" but in usage it typically refers to the mind or to thoughts. I split them out in the translation because the song is so much about following your heart yadda yadda.

起飛 actually refers to an airplane lifting off. It was a bit hard to put that context in the gloss and still have it make sense, so "up-fly" it was.

Mandarin version

English translation

English version

放開手,放開手 Let it go, let it go Let it go, let it go
fàngkāi shǒu, fàngkāi shǒu (let-open hand, let-open hand)
從今往後由我主宰 From today, I will decide I'm one with the wind and sky
cóng jīn wǎnghòu yóu wǒ zhǔzǎi (from today in future due to me decide)
讓它走,讓它走 Let it go, let it go Let it go, let go
ràng tā zǒu, ràng tā zǒu (let it go, let it go)
絕不再受傷害 Never again will I be hurt You'll never see me cry
jué bù zài shòu shānghài (absolutely not ever suffer hurt)
新世界在我眼前 A new world lies in front of my eyes Here I stand and here I'm staying
xīn shìjiè zài wǒ yǎnqián (new world is my eyes front)
讓暴雨翻騰 Let the rainstorm rage Let the storm rage on
ràng bàoyǔ fānténg (let rainstorm churn)

The other rendition of "let it go" makes its appearance: 讓它走. Unlike 放開手, which is about letting go of something in your grasp, 讓它走 is about letting something walk away or letting something go free.

I've been glossing 在 as "is" and it's making me unhappy because it's so vague. In this context, 在 indicates position; it's not a copula). It tells you that something is somewhere. 前 "front" is a postposition, so mentally swing it around before the noun phrase 我眼 "my eyes", and you get "in front of my eyes".

Mandarin version

English translation

English version

力量強大從地底直竄上雲霄 My power strengthens from underground and bursts up towards the skies My power flurries through the air into the ground
lìliàng qiángdà cóng dìdǐ zhí cuàn shàng yúnxiāo (power strong-big from ground-under straight expel up clouds)
我的心層層冰封,銳利碎片很難消 My heart freezes over layer by layer, sharp shards that are very hard to extinguish My soul is spiralling in frozen fractals all around
wǒ de xīn céngcéng bīngfēng, ruìlì suìpiàn hěn nán xiāo (my heart layer-layer ice-seal, sharp break-piece very difficult eliminate)
心念動,冰晶立起,天地將改變 A thought moves my heart, ice crystals freeze, the sky and earth will soon transform And one thought crystallises like an icy blast
xīnniàn dòng, bīngjīng lì qǐ, tiāndì jiāng gǎibiàn (heart-thought move, ice crystals freeze, sky-earth soon transform)
前方的路等待 The road ahead awaits I'm never going back
qiánfāng de lù děngdài (ahead ATTR road awaits)
過去不要留戀 Don't dwell on the past The past is in the past
guòqù bùyào liúliàn (past don't be nostalgic)

I spent a long time with 竄上. I originally used "flies up towards the skies", but "fly" doesn't have the force of "expel", and so I settled on "bursts up". 強大 strong actually parses like an adjective here to me, although I don't see why it shouldn't be 強大力量 instead of 力量強大, so I hedged a bit and avoided the question altogether.

層層 layer-layer is a fascinating use of reduplication. Actually, both cases of reduplication in this version have been adverbial, which cough Wikipedia cough doesn't mention in its section about reduplication in Mandarin. Nominal, verbal, adjectival reduplication yes, but not adverbial.

Mandarin version

English translation

English version

讓它走,讓它走 Let it go, let it go Let it go, let it go
ràng tā zǒu, ràng tā zǒu (let it go, let it go)
烏雲後面就是曙光 Behind the dark clouds is the dawn And I'll rise like the break of dawn
wūyún hòumiàn jiùshì shǔguāng (dark-clouds behind-side just is dawn-light)
讓它走,讓它走 Let it go, let it go Let it go, let go
ràng tā zǒu, ràng tā zǒu (let it go, let it go)
只剩記憶迴盪 Only memories left echoing That perfect girl is gone
zhǐ shèng jìyì huídàng (only left memories reverberating)
新世界,希望在眼前 A new world, hope before my eyes Here I stand in the light of day
xīn shìjiè, xīwàng zài yǎnqián (ne world, hope is eyes-front)
讓暴雨翻騰 Let the rainstorm rage Let the storm rage on
ràng bàoyǔ fānténg (let rainstorm churn)
從不畏懼征服冰霜風雪 Never again fear conquering the ice, frost, wind and snow The cold never bothered me anyway
cóng bù wèijù zhēngfú bīngshuāng fēngxuě (ever no fear conquer ice-frost-wind-snow)

I know echo and reverb are not the same thing but reverberating has too many damn syllables.

At this point in this translation binge, all I can think is: how do you know the clouds are dark if the sun isn't up yet?


This post is part of the Parallel Translation series, where I translate things that have been translated from English into other languages back into English. It's my idea of fun. Yes, I'm a riot at parties.